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Topic – Pioneer Farms: Fall and Winter

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Pioneer Farms: Fall and Winter


In fall, farmers harvested their crops. It was important to harvest the crops before winter came. Frost could ruin the crops.

Many farmers grew wheat. Wheat is used to make flour, and flour is used to make bread. Bread was an important food for pioneers.

Farmers harvested wheat using a tool with a long blade. They cut the stalks of wheat and tied it into bundles. Then they took the wheat to the barn. Farmers beat the wheat with a flail to make the seeds come off. This is called threshing. Only the seeds are used to make flour.

The seeds are called grain. They are covered with a shell called chaff. During threshing, the chaff comes off the grain. Chaff cannot be used to make flour, so farmers had to get rid of the chaff. On a windy day, they put the grain and the chaff on a bed sheet. One person held each end of the sheet, and they tossed the grain and chaff into the air. The chaff is very light, so the wind blew it away. The grain fell back onto the sheet. Getting rid of the chaff is called winnowing.

Then farmers took the grain to a mill. At the mill, the grain was crushed to make flour.


Winter was a time for farmers to fix their tools and repair buildings and fences. Farmers also had more time to visit friends and relatives.

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