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Topic – Arctic and Antarctic

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Read about the Arctic and Antarctic, or click on the play button below to listen aloud.


Arctic and Antarctic

Earth is shaped like a giant ball. The area at the top of Earth is called the Arctic. That’s where the North Pole is. At the bottom of Earth is an area called the Antarctic. That’s where the South Pole is. The Arctic and the Antarctic are both very cold places.


Indigenous people called Inuit have lived in the Arctic for hundreds of years. Long ago, Inuit hunted and fished for food and they lived in snow homes called igloos. Today, airplanes bring food to people who live in the Arctic. Some Inuit still hunt and fish for food.

The land in the Antarctic is called Antarctica. Nobody lives in Antarctica all the time. Scientists go there to learn more about it. They may stay for there for months, but their homes are in other places.



Some animals are able to survive in the frigid winter temperatures of the Arctic and Antarctic. Several kinds of animals live in the Arctic. These include polar bears, caribou (also called reindeer), Arctic foxes, and seals. The Antarctic is home to penguins and seals.


From November to February, the Arctic has winter weather. It gets very cold, and the land is covered with ice and snow. Arctic summers last from June to September. The weather is not hot, but it gets warm enough to melt ice and snow. A few plants can grow during the short Arctic summer.

In the Antarctic, the seasons are at opposite times of the year. Summer lasts from October to February, and it is winter from March to September. It can be dangerous for planes to fly to Antarctica in winter because it is so cold that an airplane’s fuel might freeze. Then the plane could not fly. Pilots make winter flights to Antarctica only if there is an emergency, such as a scientist who is very sick and needs to go to a hospital. There are no hospitals in Antarctica.

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